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Chan, K.T. The heat transport system (HTS) circulates the coolant through the reactor to remove the heat of fission from the fuel. [or] if the reactor fails to shut down or the … trailer << /Size 103 /Info 71 0 R /Encrypt 79 0 R /Root 78 0 R /Prev 275858 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 78 0 obj << /Pages 72 0 R /Type /Catalog /DefaultGray 73 0 R /DefaultRGB 74 0 R /Outlines 82 0 R /PageMode /UseOutlines /PageLayout /SinglePage /OpenAction 80 0 R >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Filter /Standard /V 1 /R 2 /O ( :`$V|K/a�&�dX8�'v��3�-c�4N�>) /U (1�.熤&�z��ň�`�T{^K2��j'>) /P -44 >> endobj 80 0 obj << /S /GoTo /D [ 81 0 R /Fit ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /S 197 /O 267 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 102 0 R >> stream CANDU-9 Simulator CANada Deuterium Uranium Reactor Simulator The CANDU-900 MWe Compact Simulator was originally developed to assist Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in the design of the plant display system. w����Rb(�J�J^$ After the 2nd year, the CANDU reactor begins to operate practically as a thorium burner.Very high burn-up can be achieved with the same fuel (>160,000 MW D/MT). It was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types that evolved from other uses. It is somewhat an accident of history that Canada focussed all her nuclear power development effort on heavy water reactors. emphasis is placed on the CANDU 600 MW(e) design. Dunn, J.J. Lipsett, M.J.F. products: CANDU 6 and CANDU 9. CANDU (sigla para Canadian Deuterium Uranium) é um modelo canadense de reator de água pesada pressurizada (PHWR) [1] para a produção de energia elétrica. CANDU 6.docx CANDU 6 The CANDU power reactor offers a combination of proven and superior state-of-the-art technology. 0000004216 00000 n Heavy water (D 2 O) is a natural form of water that is used as a moderator to slow down the neutrons in the reactor, enabling the use of natural uranium as fuel. Subsequently, more general core modelling concepts are presented, including the two-step approach to neutronics calculations: multi-group lattice transport calculations, followed by full-core, few-group diffusion calculations. 0000001613 00000 n A slow or thermal neutron, possessing a speed of approximately 2200 mis, is absorbed in a Uranium-235 nucleus. endobj The CANDU 3 … 77 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 81 /H [ 1261 352 ] /L 277526 /E 8324 /N 13 /T 275868 >> endobj xref 77 26 0000000016 00000 n The CANDU reactor system has proven itself to be a world leader in terms of station availability and low total unit energy cost. 0000002544 00000 n The EC6 offers reliability, flexibility in operation to load follow and the ability to be connected to most grids of most countries • Proven CANDU reactor strengths include: 9 9 x��Wms�F����>�2�wI�g0����qm����Jd��#� ����$����X0b��yv�vI������/F�����ѐ|�v8�s.��! All CANDU reactors use heavy water as the moderator, in a system that is completely separate from the reactor coolant heavy water. The CANDU, for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used tae generate electric pouer.The acronym refers tae its deuterium oxide (hivy watter) moderator and its use o (originally, natural) uranium fuel. stream The use of natural uranium fuel in our EC6 reactors permits fuel cycle independence and avoids having to . Notley, N.J. Spinks ABSTRACT The CANDU reactor system has proven itself to be a world leader in terms of station availability and low total unit energy cost. 0000001828 00000 n . It concludes with some technical details of the proposed Advanced CANDU reactor for comparison with existing commercial CANDU reactors. Figure 1-1 illustrates how CANDU reactors produce electricity. 0000001207 00000 n The CANDU reactor design (or PHWR – Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) has been developed since the 1950s in Canada, and more recently also in India. deal with complex issues such as reprocessing and enrichment. That is, the denom inator in Eq. Introduction to Nuclear Reactors – June 2015 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Nuclear Reactors prepared by Dr. Robin Chaplin Summary: This chapter provides a top-level introduction to nuclear reactors and surveys the world reactor situation. UNRESTRICTED TDS1 -105 I I | CANDU NUCLEAR POWER SYSTEM I • ABSTRACT IThis report provides a comprehensive summary of the many components that make up a CANDU reactor. The CANDU reactor design (or PHWR – Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) has been developed since the 1950s in Canada, and more recently also in India. How and Why is CANDU designed the way it is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1. reactor. Ao contrário da maioria dos reatores nucleares do mundo, que usam a combinação água leve urânio enriquecido, o Candu usa combinação água pesada e urânio natural [1].O principal usuário deste tipo de reator é o Canadá, … Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactor, boiling water reactor (BWR), pressurized water reactor (PWR), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (WWER) plants are documented in the reports. Frontmatter (pdf 78kb) as of 2016.12.27; Prologue - CANDU in Context (pdf 1.5Mb) by Dr. William J. Garland, as of 2014.09.18; Chapter 1 Introduction to Nuclear Reactors (pdf 700kb) by Dr. Robin Chaplin, as of 2016.09.08 Appendix - Historical Background (pdf 846kb) by Dr. Robin Chaplin, as of 2016.09.08 CANDU, short for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a nuclear reactor that uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant and natural uranium as a fuel source. 0000002427 00000 n As mentioned above, the hot heavy water coolant must transfer the heat to a steam generator, which can then boil the water and send steam to a turbine section. 2 0 obj CANDU Refuelling is carried out with the reactor at power. The chapter includes a note on the advantages of the CANDU reactor compared with other water cooled reactors and a general review of reactor safety as applicable to most water cooled reactors. … 0000005322 00000 n 1. This reflector also has an important effect on reactor dynamics because of its very long diffusion length. This report presents the example of transport and extracts potential lessons to be drawn for international harmonization of reactor design and approaches to licensing. A twin AFCR saves up to 13 Reactor x����r�X���AAT�*�(l���ވ����c D�v�8M��{؞0�����ӱ�. 0000001995 00000 n &��l��]R�2��0J���҃�,�9�M�N"AO��Z���"l���̎ Tsang and D.B. A CANDU* reactor is a heavy-water-moderated power reactor of the general type developed in Canada by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). 10.0 Define the following and state how they arise: 307,1980 I I I FIGURE 1.2-10 CUMULATIVE LOAD FACTORS FOR REACTORS OVER 500 MW(e) TO END OF SEPTEMBER 1960 CANDU 6.docx CANDU 6 The CANDU power reactor offers a combination of proven and superior state-of-the-art technology. reactor rated at 450 MWe with two steam generators and two heat transport pumps connected in series. Response of the Critical Reactor to a Reactivity Change 7.0 Define log rate and reactor period and state their relationship 8.0 Describe the response of a CANDU reactor at low power to a small step insertion of positive reactivity 9.0 Explain the effect of delayed neutrons on reactor control. Week 2 - Dynamic Characteristics of CANDU Reactors 5-10 H:\Violeta 1 – Word\web\Dynamic Characteristics of CANDU Reactors The CANDU-HWR uses a heavy water radial reflector. 0000001908 00000 n In so doing, the authors acknowledge that while CANDU Nuclear Reactor - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. endobj Shutdown system number one (SDS-1) consists of cadmium absorbers inserted vertically into the reactor from top to bottom. Although some of the material presented is common to other reactor types, the design details described pertain to the CANDU reactor. CANDU reactors have two independent shutdown systems that can be actuated by the in-core reactor protection system and that are able to effect a rapid reactor shutdown. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR™) is a Generation III advanced fuel-efficient 740 MWe-class Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor developed by Candu Energy, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group and China National Nuclear Corporation. Candu Reactor Severe Accident Analysis For Accident Management CANDU reactor is provided with safety features for severe accidents mitigation: two independent shutdown systems, moderator system and the shield tank to remove the reactor decay heat in case of unavailability of other heat sinks. Chapter 5 Reactor Dynamics (pdf 1.5kb) by Dr. Eleodor Nichita and Dr. Benjamin Rouben , as of 2017.03.21. For various outer zone enrichments and inner zone INDEX Section Page 1 Introduction 1 2 Fuel Design 1 … 0000002084 00000 n CANDU is a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide – D2O) as a moderator and coolant, and natural uranium as its fuel. The reason that a steam generator is used is due to the fact that the heavy water coolant is radioactive from being in direct contact with the reactor core. tary reactor-physics design of CANDU reactors is presented, and the associated neutron energy spectrum is discussed. Reactor-Physics Analysis Basis for Current CANDU Presentation to US NRC 2002 December B. Rouben Manager, Reactor Core Physics AECL, Sheridan Park Pg 2 Purpose The objectives of this presentation are to: • discuss the basic design features of the current CANDU-PHW reactor core by introducing an annulus of enriched uranium around the central region of natural uranium. stream CANDU stations use experts in health physics, radiation protection, shielding, and environ-mental safety to ensure that reactor operations comply with Canadian regulations in a safe and controlled manner. Fuel channel pressure tubes are critical components of the CANDU reactor core which require periodic inspection to demonstrate continued fitnes s for service. The incentive for such a study is the possibility of improving the uranium resource utilization and reducing costs. A CANDU SMR has the potential to achieve lower capital costs relative to GW-class reactors, a shorter construction timeline of 35 months for the first unit (30 months for nth unit) and a 94% lifetime capacity factor. FUTURE TRENDS IN THE DESIGN OF CANDU REACTORS by J.T. * CANDU - Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor + LWR - Light Wate r Reacto ATOMIC ENERGY OF CANADA LIMITED Power Projects Sheridan Park Research Community Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 AECL5609 March 1976. 0000007775 00000 n %'Fs�������v��n���A��sn�%�7����R�$*�j�w�� ��۲���xL��%�%��#~v�\i�? It was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types that evolved from 0000002188 00000 n *owi0�c(�nz�Ҋ]��68�7(2ozY�s�m�d�Պc����1��sp��תϔ+?���W������w���Yn���Bqט8N��Y"�X7 ���](Q���Aװ)C�ɃG,�H�Y��������d΁�L�������Ɠ�"K� kv��9��Nh_�� �������1�#���K5���|pH- CANDU is the most efficient of all reactors in using uranium: it uses about 15% less uranium than a pressurized water reactor for each megawatt of electricity produced Use of natural uranium widens the source of supply and makes fuel fabrication easier. 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Chan, K.T. The heat transport system (HTS) circulates the coolant through the reactor to remove the heat of fission from the fuel. [or] if the reactor fails to shut down or the … trailer << /Size 103 /Info 71 0 R /Encrypt 79 0 R /Root 78 0 R /Prev 275858 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 78 0 obj << /Pages 72 0 R /Type /Catalog /DefaultGray 73 0 R /DefaultRGB 74 0 R /Outlines 82 0 R /PageMode /UseOutlines /PageLayout /SinglePage /OpenAction 80 0 R >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Filter /Standard /V 1 /R 2 /O ( :`$V|K/a�&�dX8�'v��3�-c�4N�>) /U (1�.熤&�z��ň�`�T{^K2��j'>) /P -44 >> endobj 80 0 obj << /S /GoTo /D [ 81 0 R /Fit ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /S 197 /O 267 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 102 0 R >> stream CANDU-9 Simulator CANada Deuterium Uranium Reactor Simulator The CANDU-900 MWe Compact Simulator was originally developed to assist Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in the design of the plant display system. w����Rb(�J�J^$ After the 2nd year, the CANDU reactor begins to operate practically as a thorium burner.Very high burn-up can be achieved with the same fuel (>160,000 MW D/MT). It was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types that evolved from other uses. It is somewhat an accident of history that Canada focussed all her nuclear power development effort on heavy water reactors. emphasis is placed on the CANDU 600 MW(e) design. Dunn, J.J. Lipsett, M.J.F. products: CANDU 6 and CANDU 9. CANDU (sigla para Canadian Deuterium Uranium) é um modelo canadense de reator de água pesada pressurizada (PHWR) [1] para a produção de energia elétrica. CANDU 6.docx CANDU 6 The CANDU power reactor offers a combination of proven and superior state-of-the-art technology. 0000004216 00000 n Heavy water (D 2 O) is a natural form of water that is used as a moderator to slow down the neutrons in the reactor, enabling the use of natural uranium as fuel. Subsequently, more general core modelling concepts are presented, including the two-step approach to neutronics calculations: multi-group lattice transport calculations, followed by full-core, few-group diffusion calculations. 0000001613 00000 n A slow or thermal neutron, possessing a speed of approximately 2200 mis, is absorbed in a Uranium-235 nucleus. endobj The CANDU 3 … 77 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 81 /H [ 1261 352 ] /L 277526 /E 8324 /N 13 /T 275868 >> endobj xref 77 26 0000000016 00000 n The CANDU reactor system has proven itself to be a world leader in terms of station availability and low total unit energy cost. 0000002544 00000 n The EC6 offers reliability, flexibility in operation to load follow and the ability to be connected to most grids of most countries • Proven CANDU reactor strengths include: 9 9 x��Wms�F����>�2�wI�g0����qm����Jd��#� ����$����X0b��yv�vI������/F�����ѐ|�v8�s.��! All CANDU reactors use heavy water as the moderator, in a system that is completely separate from the reactor coolant heavy water. The CANDU, for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used tae generate electric pouer.The acronym refers tae its deuterium oxide (hivy watter) moderator and its use o (originally, natural) uranium fuel. stream The use of natural uranium fuel in our EC6 reactors permits fuel cycle independence and avoids having to . Notley, N.J. Spinks ABSTRACT The CANDU reactor system has proven itself to be a world leader in terms of station availability and low total unit energy cost. 0000001828 00000 n . It concludes with some technical details of the proposed Advanced CANDU reactor for comparison with existing commercial CANDU reactors. Figure 1-1 illustrates how CANDU reactors produce electricity. 0000001207 00000 n The CANDU reactor design (or PHWR – Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) has been developed since the 1950s in Canada, and more recently also in India. deal with complex issues such as reprocessing and enrichment. That is, the denom inator in Eq. Introduction to Nuclear Reactors – June 2015 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Nuclear Reactors prepared by Dr. Robin Chaplin Summary: This chapter provides a top-level introduction to nuclear reactors and surveys the world reactor situation. UNRESTRICTED TDS1 -105 I I | CANDU NUCLEAR POWER SYSTEM I • ABSTRACT IThis report provides a comprehensive summary of the many components that make up a CANDU reactor. The CANDU reactor design (or PHWR – Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) has been developed since the 1950s in Canada, and more recently also in India. How and Why is CANDU designed the way it is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1. reactor. Ao contrário da maioria dos reatores nucleares do mundo, que usam a combinação água leve urânio enriquecido, o Candu usa combinação água pesada e urânio natural [1].O principal usuário deste tipo de reator é o Canadá, … Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactor, boiling water reactor (BWR), pressurized water reactor (PWR), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (WWER) plants are documented in the reports. Frontmatter (pdf 78kb) as of 2016.12.27; Prologue - CANDU in Context (pdf 1.5Mb) by Dr. William J. Garland, as of 2014.09.18; Chapter 1 Introduction to Nuclear Reactors (pdf 700kb) by Dr. Robin Chaplin, as of 2016.09.08 Appendix - Historical Background (pdf 846kb) by Dr. Robin Chaplin, as of 2016.09.08 CANDU, short for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a nuclear reactor that uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant and natural uranium as a fuel source. 0000002427 00000 n As mentioned above, the hot heavy water coolant must transfer the heat to a steam generator, which can then boil the water and send steam to a turbine section. 2 0 obj CANDU Refuelling is carried out with the reactor at power. The chapter includes a note on the advantages of the CANDU reactor compared with other water cooled reactors and a general review of reactor safety as applicable to most water cooled reactors. … 0000005322 00000 n 1. This reflector also has an important effect on reactor dynamics because of its very long diffusion length. This report presents the example of transport and extracts potential lessons to be drawn for international harmonization of reactor design and approaches to licensing. A twin AFCR saves up to 13 Reactor x����r�X���AAT�*�(l���ވ����c D�v�8M��{؞0�����ӱ�. 0000001995 00000 n &��l��]R�2��0J���҃�,�9�M�N"AO��Z���"l���̎ Tsang and D.B. A CANDU* reactor is a heavy-water-moderated power reactor of the general type developed in Canada by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). 10.0 Define the following and state how they arise: 307,1980 I I I FIGURE 1.2-10 CUMULATIVE LOAD FACTORS FOR REACTORS OVER 500 MW(e) TO END OF SEPTEMBER 1960 CANDU 6.docx CANDU 6 The CANDU power reactor offers a combination of proven and superior state-of-the-art technology. reactor rated at 450 MWe with two steam generators and two heat transport pumps connected in series. Response of the Critical Reactor to a Reactivity Change 7.0 Define log rate and reactor period and state their relationship 8.0 Describe the response of a CANDU reactor at low power to a small step insertion of positive reactivity 9.0 Explain the effect of delayed neutrons on reactor control. Week 2 - Dynamic Characteristics of CANDU Reactors 5-10 H:\Violeta 1 – Word\web\Dynamic Characteristics of CANDU Reactors The CANDU-HWR uses a heavy water radial reflector. 0000001908 00000 n In so doing, the authors acknowledge that while CANDU Nuclear Reactor - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. endobj Shutdown system number one (SDS-1) consists of cadmium absorbers inserted vertically into the reactor from top to bottom. Although some of the material presented is common to other reactor types, the design details described pertain to the CANDU reactor. CANDU reactors have two independent shutdown systems that can be actuated by the in-core reactor protection system and that are able to effect a rapid reactor shutdown. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR™) is a Generation III advanced fuel-efficient 740 MWe-class Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor developed by Candu Energy, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group and China National Nuclear Corporation. Candu Reactor Severe Accident Analysis For Accident Management CANDU reactor is provided with safety features for severe accidents mitigation: two independent shutdown systems, moderator system and the shield tank to remove the reactor decay heat in case of unavailability of other heat sinks. Chapter 5 Reactor Dynamics (pdf 1.5kb) by Dr. Eleodor Nichita and Dr. Benjamin Rouben , as of 2017.03.21. For various outer zone enrichments and inner zone INDEX Section Page 1 Introduction 1 2 Fuel Design 1 … 0000002084 00000 n CANDU is a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide – D2O) as a moderator and coolant, and natural uranium as its fuel. The reason that a steam generator is used is due to the fact that the heavy water coolant is radioactive from being in direct contact with the reactor core. tary reactor-physics design of CANDU reactors is presented, and the associated neutron energy spectrum is discussed. Reactor-Physics Analysis Basis for Current CANDU Presentation to US NRC 2002 December B. Rouben Manager, Reactor Core Physics AECL, Sheridan Park Pg 2 Purpose The objectives of this presentation are to: • discuss the basic design features of the current CANDU-PHW reactor core by introducing an annulus of enriched uranium around the central region of natural uranium. stream CANDU stations use experts in health physics, radiation protection, shielding, and environ-mental safety to ensure that reactor operations comply with Canadian regulations in a safe and controlled manner. Fuel channel pressure tubes are critical components of the CANDU reactor core which require periodic inspection to demonstrate continued fitnes s for service. The incentive for such a study is the possibility of improving the uranium resource utilization and reducing costs. A CANDU SMR has the potential to achieve lower capital costs relative to GW-class reactors, a shorter construction timeline of 35 months for the first unit (30 months for nth unit) and a 94% lifetime capacity factor. FUTURE TRENDS IN THE DESIGN OF CANDU REACTORS by J.T. * CANDU - Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor + LWR - Light Wate r Reacto ATOMIC ENERGY OF CANADA LIMITED Power Projects Sheridan Park Research Community Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 AECL5609 March 1976. 0000007775 00000 n %'Fs�������v��n���A��sn�%�7����R�$*�j�w�� ��۲���xL��%�%��#~v�\i�? It was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types that evolved from 0000002188 00000 n *owi0�c(�nz�Ҋ]��68�7(2ozY�s�m�d�Պc����1��sp��תϔ+?���W������w���Yn���Bqט8N��Y"�X7 ���](Q���Aװ)C�ɃG,�H�Y��������d΁�L�������Ɠ�"K� kv��9��Nh_�� �������1�#���K5���|pH- CANDU is the most efficient of all reactors in using uranium: it uses about 15% less uranium than a pressurized water reactor for each megawatt of electricity produced Use of natural uranium widens the source of supply and makes fuel fabrication easier. 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Participants in the workshops are provided with instruction and practice in using the simulator, thus gaining insight and understanding of the design and operational characteristics of ACR-700 nuclear power plant systems in normal and accident situations. <> reactors, arguably present a similar driver today for reactor design standardization and harmonized approaches to licensing. 0000001261 00000 n This focused development is one of the reasons that CANDU … The design utilizes natural uranium fuel, computer-controlled operation, and on-line refueling. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR ) is a Generation III advanced fuel-efficient 740 MWe-class Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor developed by Candu Energy, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group and China National Nuclear Subsequently, more general core modelling concepts are … 25 No. The CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power. The CANDU, for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used tae generate electric pouer. Ontario Power Generation; Inspection & Maintenance Services Division has been operating a variety of inspection systems to perform volumetric and surface nondestructive examinations of the pressure tubes. Major I emphasis is placed on the CANDU 600 MW(e) design. Chapter 6 Thermalhydraulic Design (pdf 11.4Mb) by Dr. Nikola K. Popov, as of 2017.03.12 Chapter 7 Thermalhydraulic . 6 0 obj Each end shield comprises an inner and an outer tubesheet joined by lattice tubes at CANDU reactor. 0000000885 00000 n Buss Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Sheridan Science and Technology Park Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5K 1B2 Abstract NG CANDU is the “Next® Advanced CANDU Reactor ACR-700 • Builds on CANDU 6 design, project and operational experience • Retained traditional CANDU features: – Modular horizontal fuel channel – Fuel bundle design – Low temperature, low pressure heavy water moderator – On-power fueling – Passive shutdown systems in low pressure moderator About 4% of the reactor thermal power appears in the moderator, due to gamma radiation, the slowing down of fast neutrons, and heat transferred from the fuel channels. Research and initial drafting by Albert Lee (AG Since the early … 0000002249 00000 n In nuclear reactor PSAs, risk is usually defined by the frequency and magnitude of radioactive releases to the environment. CANDU Reactors CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors use heavy water as a coolant instead of regular old light water. Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor.docx Compelling environmental benefits Every twin AFCR generates enough power to meet the daily needs of two million people with no emissions or other pollutants. On-power refuelling (CANDU reactors); Human/machine interface. 3 0 obj 4 0 obj The calandria is closed and supported by end shields at each end. %���� This Uranium-236 nucleus subsequently breaks up into two fission fragments of unequal mass and concurrently emits several high energy 0000002822 00000 n CANDU-PHW reactor core by introducing an annulus of enriched uranium around the central region of natural uranium. characteristics of the very successful CANDU 6 reactor. CANDU plant (some, but not all, of which are retained in the ACR design), • present the computer programs used in reactor physics, and • describe some of the more important modelling and analytical capabilities of the reactor-physics toolset. This feature makes the in-core fuel This feature makes the in-core fuel management substantially different from that in reactors that must be refuelled during shut- Reactor Dynamics – December 2016 CHAPTER 5 Reactor Dynamics prepared by Eleodor Nichita, UOIT and Benjamin Rouben, 12 & … ������^� AeIa����e��؟EE��������op6���۠��2��[�d�֙0��N��/�S��A1�Ԝơ�K{��5lH͸l�+�)W��~�8�d�|QD��dn�]�� 0000002368 00000 n Reactor Physics of NG CANDU by P.S.W. In 1985 four of the top ten reactor units in the world were CANDU reactors operating in South Korea and Canada. CANDU PWR CANDU CANDU PWR CANDU CANDU PWR PWR PWR CANDU CANDU Ref: Nuclear Engineering International Vol. Nuclear Power-> Nuclear Power Plant-> Types of Reactors-> CANDU - Heavy water reactor. The last seven CANDU reactors have been built on budget and on or ahead of schedule Advanced safety features that go above and beyond This feature is unique to CANDU reactors. tary reactor-physics design of CANDU reactors is presented, and the associated neutron energy spectrum is discussed. 0000001591 00000 n endobj The reactor … D �D)�:� ]AK�,�e�!�=���KN������mR�5�$�AO� >�M��������b�>�i 8]�20��q�&�L���h�dJ�������`�4IfJQ�۫�iY���f�z��.AL Cqz��L���Xf+�p�}��{ǟo[qE� ��E�s��5a�D�3\�Z2r3�CFn�8E�!�TIUb `�D ��Hz��_��f�Z��I{� �,J�n|�Q� �$����[�h���U�Q�����,�~�*F�gU)�*����P����I�����(�b���\���l3�Ɩ�\�l��UQ��P9��Yu����C&̋�ȭ����|eݽ�0� �����g�5��D��� �e�A_uB��r9Ou�h�BDz�e�ko�J�n��S?P큕�E���9� lR���{�g�)X�eƭXJ��4�. One fuelling machine inserts new fuel bundles into the fuel channel, in the same direction as the flow of coolant in that channel, left to right in this diagram. For educational use only, no assumed liability. Legislature) “It is not right to say that a catastrophic accident is impossible . endobj CORE MELTDOWNS IN CANDU REACTORS – KNOWN FACTS 3 of the uranium oxide fuel itself would probably occur. ���V�@6�b`G���a�k�EgW\�y1�^��Ӭ�k2v��A 1.1 Overview Experts in The chapter includes a note on the advantages of the CANDU reactor compared with other water cooled reactors and a general review of reactor safety as applicable to most water cooled reactors. . The 2 It concludes with some reactor. which lead to the steady-state condition in a CANDU nuclear reactor. CANDU reactors have two independent shutdown systems that can be actuated by the in-core reactor protection system and that are able to effect a rapid reactor shutdown. [���q(4g�:�V0e5Q6bF�5��n#�[��=YL M�� ��pvz�hf,�}@�Ї �r����=����v�O8?��En�v�``gD��Lʢ �#m�^P6�kEZ���dC���d���Чm ,�f�@�/k��5����إ�U�[7�]����>�b-�������VaRE&&���͵� ��r��$� M��@�d�^f>�t 0000008072 00000 n CORE MELTDOWNS IN CANDU REACTORS – KNOWN FACTS 1 compiled by G. Edwards Ph.D., President, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility QUOTATIONS FROM: The Safety of Ontario’s Nuclear Reactors (1980) by the Select Committee on Ontario Hydro Affairs (Ont. 1 0 obj <> The CANDU 6 reactor is the design currently operating in five countries (Argentina, Canada, China, South Korea, and Romania). reactor, known as the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-700 MWe) simulator. 0000006698 00000 n <> The acronym refers to its deuterium oxide (heavy water) moderator and its use of (originally, natural) uranium fuel. Built on proven Canadian technology, this The CANDU® Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is the only all-Canadian – and most mature – SMR design available today to help the Government of Canada reach its goal of Net Zero by 2050. <>>> 5 0 obj CANDU Reactor Fuel Cycle Flexibility: › - CANDU Fuel Cycle Advantages › - Operational Reactors (NUE) › - CANDU Reactor Inherent Safety Features › - New Build Reactors (AFCR) › - Future With Water Coolant › Dr. S. Kuran › VP, Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor Workshop on Advanced Reactors… endobj The acronym refers tae its deuterium oxide (hivy watter) moderator and its use o (originally, natural) uranium fuel. approximately apply to the CANDU reactor. The CANDU 6 design as implemented at sites in The CANDU-HWR uses a heavy water radial reflector. %PDF-1.3 %���� 0000003927 00000 n endstream <>/XObject<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> The mean flight path length of a neutron between collisions (the “mean 0000002307 00000 n Instead of using a single large reactor vessel as in a PWR or BWR, the … The development of the first CANDU reactor began in 1954 through a partnership between Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Ontario Hydro and the Canadian General Electric Company. Initia1 Condition We suppose that initially 100 neutrons appear in a given neutron generation as a result of the fission processes. These reactors are heavy water cooled and moderated pressurized water reactors. The choice of D 2 O as the moderator also allows other fuel cycles to be used in CANDU reactors. 0000001068 00000 n These were invented and developed in Canada in the 1960’s, when Canada decided that they did not want to build enrichment plants … �2���]�i9���E4W_j���dQ (/�R(�|m�t�.c���@�\ꛩk���,>}�>) �����u��Q2 h��z�jyI��P����R��ڢ��!6��}. Virtually all the systems in a nuclear power plant contain an instrumentation and control element. Shutdown system number one (SDS-1) consists of Advanced CANDU Reactor ACR-700 • Builds on CANDU 6 design, project and operational experience • Retained traditional CANDU features: – Modular horizontal fuel channel – Fuel bundle design – Low temperature, low pressure Introduction - a reality check requires Quality of life Lots of Energy Coal Oil Gas Solar Wind Biogas Nuclear CANDU PWR BWR Gas reactors and other variations Resource limited Too dilute Let's step back to take a glimpse of the context into which CANDU must be placed. Reactor Assembly The CANDU 6 reactor assembly, shown in the figure opposite, includes the fuel channels contained in and supported by a horizontal cylindrical tank known as the calandria. 0000008050 00000 n The various commercial large power producing reactors are identified and described Title: Harmonization of Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing: Lessons Learned from Transport Produced by: World Nuclear Association in cooperation with CANDU Owners Group. 0000002488 00000 n -1<1��Bk�L�P�[�!�O��D��(��*,H!�'�GU ;�2�p�{]qM�k�rbء�Z��r;����}�吣_�8�'�aE���y����ױ��;%�_��R=7+L�gu�S���Wd8�ÇQ�|:�oj1��jJ��d���5�G������0�ꓘqz�iۺ�n�#`aHЊj)�n� endstream endobj 102 0 obj 236 endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 75 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F0 93 0 R /F1 95 0 R /F2 97 0 R >> /ProcSet 100 0 R >> /Contents 96 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Count 3 /Type /Outlines /First 83 0 R /Last 84 0 R >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Title (� ������0�,L) /Parent 82 0 R /A 90 0 R /Next 85 0 R >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Title (�O��"00��}ӣ) /Prev 85 0 R /Parent 82 0 R /A 86 0 R >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Title (��+�`dT�> endobj 86 0 obj << /S /GoToR /F 87 0 R /D [ 0 /Fit ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /FileSpec /F (j�}���E����) >> endobj 88 0 obj << /S /GoToR /F 89 0 R /D [ 0 /Fit ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /FileSpec /F (��ZL�F3L���) >> endobj 90 0 obj << /S /GoToR /F 91 0 R /D [ 0 /Fit ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /FileSpec /F (��eNu���Z) >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRoman /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -250 -240 1200 900 ] /MissingWidth 780 /StemV 73 /StemH 73 /ItalicAngle 0 /CapHeight 900 /XHeight 630 /Ascent 900 /Descent -240 /Leading 180 /MaxWidth 1000 /AvgWidth 400 >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F0 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman,Bold /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 255 /Widths [ 260 340 560 500 500 980 840 280 340 340 500 560 260 340 260 280 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 340 340 560 560 560 500 940 720 680 720 720 660 600 780 780 380 500 800 660 960 720 780 600 780 720 560 660 720 720 1000 720 720 640 340 280 340 580 500 340 500 560 440 560 440 320 500 560 280 340 540 260 820 560 500 560 560 420 380 340 560 500 720 480 500 420 400 220 400 520 780 560 780 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 780 560 780 780 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 780 560 560 260 320 500 500 500 500 220 500 360 740 300 500 560 340 740 500 400 540 300 300 340 580 540 240 340 300 340 500 760 760 760 500 720 720 720 720 720 720 1000 720 660 660 660 660 380 380 380 380 720 720 780 780 780 780 780 560 780 720 720 720 720 720 620 560 500 500 500 500 500 500 720 440 440 440 440 440 280 280 280 280 500 560 500 500 500 500 500 540 500 560 560 560 560 500 560 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 94 0 R >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRoman,Bold /Flags 16418 /FontBBox [ -250 -216 1200 1040 ] /MissingWidth 340 /StemV 136 /StemH 136 /ItalicAngle 0 /CapHeight 891 /XHeight 446 /Ascent 891 /Descent -216 /Leading 149 /MaxWidth 1000 /AvgWidth 427 >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F1 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman /FirstChar 31 /LastChar 255 /Widths [ 778 250 333 408 500 500 833 778 180 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 564 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 722 944 722 722 611 333 278 333 469 500 333 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 480 200 480 541 778 500 778 333 500 444 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 889 778 778 778 778 333 333 444 444 350 500 1000 333 980 389 333 722 778 778 722 250 333 500 500 500 500 200 500 333 760 276 500 564 333 760 500 400 549 300 300 333 576 453 250 333 300 310 500 750 750 750 444 722 722 722 722 722 722 889 667 611 611 611 611 333 333 333 333 722 722 722 722 722 722 722 564 722 722 722 722 722 722 556 500 444 444 444 444 444 444 667 444 444 444 444 444 278 278 278 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 92 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 99 0 R >> stream pressure tube reactor. Chan, K.T. The heat transport system (HTS) circulates the coolant through the reactor to remove the heat of fission from the fuel. [or] if the reactor fails to shut down or the … trailer << /Size 103 /Info 71 0 R /Encrypt 79 0 R /Root 78 0 R /Prev 275858 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 78 0 obj << /Pages 72 0 R /Type /Catalog /DefaultGray 73 0 R /DefaultRGB 74 0 R /Outlines 82 0 R /PageMode /UseOutlines /PageLayout /SinglePage /OpenAction 80 0 R >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Filter /Standard /V 1 /R 2 /O ( :`$V|K/a�&�dX8�'v��3�-c�4N�>) /U (1�.熤&�z��ň�`�T{^K2��j'>) /P -44 >> endobj 80 0 obj << /S /GoTo /D [ 81 0 R /Fit ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /S 197 /O 267 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 102 0 R >> stream CANDU-9 Simulator CANada Deuterium Uranium Reactor Simulator The CANDU-900 MWe Compact Simulator was originally developed to assist Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in the design of the plant display system. w����Rb(�J�J^$ After the 2nd year, the CANDU reactor begins to operate practically as a thorium burner.Very high burn-up can be achieved with the same fuel (>160,000 MW D/MT). It was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types that evolved from other uses. It is somewhat an accident of history that Canada focussed all her nuclear power development effort on heavy water reactors. emphasis is placed on the CANDU 600 MW(e) design. Dunn, J.J. Lipsett, M.J.F. products: CANDU 6 and CANDU 9. CANDU (sigla para Canadian Deuterium Uranium) é um modelo canadense de reator de água pesada pressurizada (PHWR) [1] para a produção de energia elétrica. CANDU 6.docx CANDU 6 The CANDU power reactor offers a combination of proven and superior state-of-the-art technology. 0000004216 00000 n Heavy water (D 2 O) is a natural form of water that is used as a moderator to slow down the neutrons in the reactor, enabling the use of natural uranium as fuel. Subsequently, more general core modelling concepts are presented, including the two-step approach to neutronics calculations: multi-group lattice transport calculations, followed by full-core, few-group diffusion calculations. 0000001613 00000 n A slow or thermal neutron, possessing a speed of approximately 2200 mis, is absorbed in a Uranium-235 nucleus. endobj The CANDU 3 … 77 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 81 /H [ 1261 352 ] /L 277526 /E 8324 /N 13 /T 275868 >> endobj xref 77 26 0000000016 00000 n The CANDU reactor system has proven itself to be a world leader in terms of station availability and low total unit energy cost. 0000002544 00000 n The EC6 offers reliability, flexibility in operation to load follow and the ability to be connected to most grids of most countries • Proven CANDU reactor strengths include: 9 9 x��Wms�F����>�2�wI�g0����qm����Jd��#� ����$����X0b��yv�vI������/F�����ѐ|�v8�s.��! All CANDU reactors use heavy water as the moderator, in a system that is completely separate from the reactor coolant heavy water. The CANDU, for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used tae generate electric pouer.The acronym refers tae its deuterium oxide (hivy watter) moderator and its use o (originally, natural) uranium fuel. stream The use of natural uranium fuel in our EC6 reactors permits fuel cycle independence and avoids having to . Notley, N.J. Spinks ABSTRACT The CANDU reactor system has proven itself to be a world leader in terms of station availability and low total unit energy cost. 0000001828 00000 n . It concludes with some technical details of the proposed Advanced CANDU reactor for comparison with existing commercial CANDU reactors. Figure 1-1 illustrates how CANDU reactors produce electricity. 0000001207 00000 n The CANDU reactor design (or PHWR – Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) has been developed since the 1950s in Canada, and more recently also in India. deal with complex issues such as reprocessing and enrichment. That is, the denom inator in Eq. Introduction to Nuclear Reactors – June 2015 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Nuclear Reactors prepared by Dr. Robin Chaplin Summary: This chapter provides a top-level introduction to nuclear reactors and surveys the world reactor situation. UNRESTRICTED TDS1 -105 I I | CANDU NUCLEAR POWER SYSTEM I • ABSTRACT IThis report provides a comprehensive summary of the many components that make up a CANDU reactor. The CANDU reactor design (or PHWR – Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) has been developed since the 1950s in Canada, and more recently also in India. How and Why is CANDU designed the way it is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1. reactor. Ao contrário da maioria dos reatores nucleares do mundo, que usam a combinação água leve urânio enriquecido, o Candu usa combinação água pesada e urânio natural [1].O principal usuário deste tipo de reator é o Canadá, … Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactor, boiling water reactor (BWR), pressurized water reactor (PWR), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (WWER) plants are documented in the reports. Frontmatter (pdf 78kb) as of 2016.12.27; Prologue - CANDU in Context (pdf 1.5Mb) by Dr. William J. Garland, as of 2014.09.18; Chapter 1 Introduction to Nuclear Reactors (pdf 700kb) by Dr. Robin Chaplin, as of 2016.09.08 Appendix - Historical Background (pdf 846kb) by Dr. Robin Chaplin, as of 2016.09.08 CANDU, short for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a nuclear reactor that uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant and natural uranium as a fuel source. 0000002427 00000 n As mentioned above, the hot heavy water coolant must transfer the heat to a steam generator, which can then boil the water and send steam to a turbine section. 2 0 obj CANDU Refuelling is carried out with the reactor at power. The chapter includes a note on the advantages of the CANDU reactor compared with other water cooled reactors and a general review of reactor safety as applicable to most water cooled reactors. … 0000005322 00000 n 1. This reflector also has an important effect on reactor dynamics because of its very long diffusion length. This report presents the example of transport and extracts potential lessons to be drawn for international harmonization of reactor design and approaches to licensing. A twin AFCR saves up to 13 Reactor x����r�X���AAT�*�(l���ވ����c D�v�8M��{؞0�����ӱ�. 0000001995 00000 n &��l��]R�2��0J���҃�,�9�M�N"AO��Z���"l���̎ Tsang and D.B. A CANDU* reactor is a heavy-water-moderated power reactor of the general type developed in Canada by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). 10.0 Define the following and state how they arise: 307,1980 I I I FIGURE 1.2-10 CUMULATIVE LOAD FACTORS FOR REACTORS OVER 500 MW(e) TO END OF SEPTEMBER 1960 CANDU 6.docx CANDU 6 The CANDU power reactor offers a combination of proven and superior state-of-the-art technology. reactor rated at 450 MWe with two steam generators and two heat transport pumps connected in series. Response of the Critical Reactor to a Reactivity Change 7.0 Define log rate and reactor period and state their relationship 8.0 Describe the response of a CANDU reactor at low power to a small step insertion of positive reactivity 9.0 Explain the effect of delayed neutrons on reactor control. Week 2 - Dynamic Characteristics of CANDU Reactors 5-10 H:\Violeta 1 – Word\web\Dynamic Characteristics of CANDU Reactors The CANDU-HWR uses a heavy water radial reflector. 0000001908 00000 n In so doing, the authors acknowledge that while CANDU Nuclear Reactor - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. endobj Shutdown system number one (SDS-1) consists of cadmium absorbers inserted vertically into the reactor from top to bottom. Although some of the material presented is common to other reactor types, the design details described pertain to the CANDU reactor. CANDU reactors have two independent shutdown systems that can be actuated by the in-core reactor protection system and that are able to effect a rapid reactor shutdown. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR™) is a Generation III advanced fuel-efficient 740 MWe-class Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor developed by Candu Energy, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group and China National Nuclear Corporation. Candu Reactor Severe Accident Analysis For Accident Management CANDU reactor is provided with safety features for severe accidents mitigation: two independent shutdown systems, moderator system and the shield tank to remove the reactor decay heat in case of unavailability of other heat sinks. Chapter 5 Reactor Dynamics (pdf 1.5kb) by Dr. Eleodor Nichita and Dr. Benjamin Rouben , as of 2017.03.21. For various outer zone enrichments and inner zone INDEX Section Page 1 Introduction 1 2 Fuel Design 1 … 0000002084 00000 n CANDU is a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide – D2O) as a moderator and coolant, and natural uranium as its fuel. The reason that a steam generator is used is due to the fact that the heavy water coolant is radioactive from being in direct contact with the reactor core. tary reactor-physics design of CANDU reactors is presented, and the associated neutron energy spectrum is discussed. Reactor-Physics Analysis Basis for Current CANDU Presentation to US NRC 2002 December B. Rouben Manager, Reactor Core Physics AECL, Sheridan Park Pg 2 Purpose The objectives of this presentation are to: • discuss the basic design features of the current CANDU-PHW reactor core by introducing an annulus of enriched uranium around the central region of natural uranium. stream CANDU stations use experts in health physics, radiation protection, shielding, and environ-mental safety to ensure that reactor operations comply with Canadian regulations in a safe and controlled manner. Fuel channel pressure tubes are critical components of the CANDU reactor core which require periodic inspection to demonstrate continued fitnes s for service. The incentive for such a study is the possibility of improving the uranium resource utilization and reducing costs. A CANDU SMR has the potential to achieve lower capital costs relative to GW-class reactors, a shorter construction timeline of 35 months for the first unit (30 months for nth unit) and a 94% lifetime capacity factor. FUTURE TRENDS IN THE DESIGN OF CANDU REACTORS by J.T. * CANDU - Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor + LWR - Light Wate r Reacto ATOMIC ENERGY OF CANADA LIMITED Power Projects Sheridan Park Research Community Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 AECL5609 March 1976. 0000007775 00000 n %'Fs�������v��n���A��sn�%�7����R�$*�j�w�� ��۲���xL��%�%��#~v�\i�? It was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types that evolved from 0000002188 00000 n *owi0�c(�nz�Ҋ]��68�7(2ozY�s�m�d�Պc����1��sp��תϔ+?���W������w���Yn���Bqט8N��Y"�X7 ���](Q���Aװ)C�ɃG,�H�Y��������d΁�L�������Ɠ�"K� kv��9��Nh_�� �������1�#���K5���|pH- CANDU is the most efficient of all reactors in using uranium: it uses about 15% less uranium than a pressurized water reactor for each megawatt of electricity produced Use of natural uranium widens the source of supply and makes fuel fabrication easier. 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